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对话古巴银行业

今年5月访问古巴期间,曾与古巴国民银行(BNC)及古巴中央银行(BCC)会谈,就古巴银行业目前情况进行了讨论。现将协会工作人员根据录音整理的中英文稿挂上,供博友分享。 

  

 

1、古巴当前银行体系
:请简要介绍古巴当前银行体系。
:古巴中央银行是古巴的央行,其基本职能是:制定并实施货币政策,发行货币并维护其币值稳定;外汇储备与外债管理,保持汇率稳定;制定法规,实施对金融机构和银行机构的监管。古巴中央银行还建立了银行监管局,作为央行的一个重要组成部分。负责监管银行机构的业务活动,并保证古巴金融体系的健康运转。
古巴金融体系规模相对较小,现仅有8家商业银行(全部都是国有银行)。此外,古巴银行体系还包括一些非银行金融机构、外资银行代表处。
 

 2、古巴银行体系沿革
:据我所知,在1997年之前,古巴国民银行(BNC)兼有古巴中央银行(BCC)的职能,请您介绍一下古巴银行体系改革历史。
:古巴国民银行和古巴中央银行现在是2个独立的机构,古巴国民银行是商业银行,而古巴中央银行是央行。正如您所提到的, 1997年之前,古巴国民银行承担着央行的职能。1997年,由于古巴经济形势的变化、投资法规的制定以及发展私营经济的改革,古巴中央银行成立,行使中央银行的基本职能,古巴国民银行不再承担原有中央银行职能而成为一个纯粹的商业银行。
点评: 这一点和中国1978年以前的银行体系十分相似。1978年以前,中国仅有中国人民银行一家银行经营金融业务。改革开放至今,中国已有3000多家银行机构。
 
        3、在华业务发展规划
:请问古巴国民银行是否有在中国开设分行的计划?
:古巴国民银行自1998年起在中国设立代表处,支持中国和古巴两国的双边贸易。我们也非常希望能够在华开设分行,并认为这具有积极意义。然而我们尚未达到在华开设分行的相关法定要求,我们将努力满足条件,并达成这一目标。中国现在是古巴第二重要的商贸伙伴国,而两国银行业关系对于保持双方商贸往来至关重要。
 
        4、古巴银行机构的业务活动
:您能简单介绍一下古巴银行机构的负债类和资产类业务吗?存贷款业务各有多少份额是与居民有关的?
:古巴中央银行不吸收居民存款,并且也不开展任何与居民相关的业务,这些是商业银行的职能。例如,古巴有商业银行专门负责农业领域相关的业务,并在全国各地开设了许多分支机构。银行根据风险分析结果和贷款方信用评级决定是否放贷及相关事宜。各商业银行开展业务之前必须从古巴中央银行获得业务许可。古巴人民储蓄银行承担着居民绝大多数的存贷款业务等,同时也支持个体经营小企业等新型经济的发展,为其提供贷款支持。古巴外贸银行主要负责对外贸易相关业务。商业银行的业务活动在一定程度上存在差异性,主要取决于具体支持和负责的领域及行业。
 
       5、社会主义计划经济体系下的银行业
:传统社会主义经济体系中通常不存在商业银行,而古巴当前的银行体系存在多家商业银行,在您看来,这是否是对传统社会主义经济体系的变革而来的新型社会主义经济体系呢?
古巴中央银行对外信贷部主任Lizi Díaz女士表示古巴一致奉行社会主义经济和计划经济体制,这一点在1997年改革之后也没有改变,并且现在仍旧在古巴的法律体系之中。国家成立了银行、企业和一些经济实体并管控这些国有资源。在银行业,银行为居民或者经济实体提供的贷款均属于国家资源。这也是1997年成立古巴中央银行(BCC)的原因之一,BCC的一项主要职能是开展银行监管,按照计划经济方式监管金融和银行机构,控制信贷额度、用途和偿还等事项。此外,BCC还负责确保古巴金融和银行业执行的法规是最新的,并遵循国内相关法律法规以及国际银行业标准和法规,如巴塞尔协议。

古巴国民银行副行长Aleida González女士表示古巴当前银行体系与社会主义经济体系并不冲突,恰恰是为满足经济发展和改善的需求而形成的。最近,政府宣布了一项改善计划,银行业也不例外。从古巴中央银行开始,各家银行都会接受审核,不断完善和改进各项职能。这项改善计划的实施范围不仅包括央行,还包括商业银行、各行各业、各家经济实体。

从国际角度来讲,古巴银行体系开展的一切业务活动均遵循国际银行业监管规则、标准(例如,巴塞尔协议)。我们遵循国际相关法规采取一系列措施打击反洗钱等不合法金融活动。

从古巴自身来讲,我们国家实行的是计划经济,这也是古巴重要的指导方针和路线。我们在遵循社会主义经济体制的同时不断开展各项改善工作。在1997年之前,我国只有一两家银行,那时的银行体系还不够多样化,无法提供多样化服务。此后,古巴逐渐开始发展银行体系的多样化。下面将简要介绍我国是如何逐渐开展多样化改善并成立新银行。1997年,古巴成立了古巴中央银行,担任央行基本职能。随着居民对存款和储蓄业务的需求,加上古巴国民银行的业务负担已经较重,无法再开展居民存款和储蓄业务,古巴人民储蓄银行成立,开展居民存款、储蓄等业务交易。之后,随着外国投资法的制定和农村改革的推行,我们又设立了专门针对农业领域和企业活动开展业务的银行。简言之,我们是根据经济发展的实际需求不断成立新银行并拓展银行职能。因此,银行的多样化发展与社会主义经济体制并不矛盾,因为多样化恰恰是为了满足国家经济的发展而开展的。
 
        6、银行机构经营状况
:请问1997年之后,古巴银行机构的经营状况如何?是否盈利?还是盈亏平衡或亏损?
:总体而言是处于盈利的状况,实际上这也是我们的首要经营目标。我们的银行业政策法规遵循社会主义经济体制的总体指导方针。从这层意义上讲,商业银行执行的信贷政策的职能之一是确保国家的货币资金能够为那些对国家发展有战略利益的生产性活动提供资金支持,主要是指那些能够提高国家出口水平并提供进口替代的活动。信贷政策都是基于对借方严格的风险分析而精心设计的。商业银行可以综合考虑各种指标、比率和情景决定是否放贷及相关事宜。这是一种很好的方法,有助于帮助我们确保贷款的回收。此外,银行还设定了呆坏账准备金制度,所有银行都必须计提一定比例的呆坏账准备金来控制呆坏账,并确保贷款的回收。然而,各商业银行的贷款业务必须根据各自的资本规模遵循一定的放贷限额,放贷额度不能超过其资本规模。

7、贷款业务
:关于是否放贷给某些公司,商业银行是否可以进行独立决策?
:是的,商业银行可以进行独立决策. 商业银行的风险和信贷委员会做出是否放贷的决策。
:贷款利率是如何设定的?对于不同的企业,贷款利率是否相同?
:与其他国家中央银行相同,古巴中央银行内部设有货币政策委员会,负责制定货币政策并设定基准利率。古巴中央银行在一定程度上允许各商业银行在规定的利润限定范围内自主决定贷款利率。各商业银行参考内部风险委员会和信贷委员会进行的风险分析和信用评级结果,以及古巴中央银行的指引意见和利润限定范围,独立决策针对不同客户的贷款利率。总言之,商业银行严格遵循古巴中央银行设定的基准利率、利润幅度上限和指引意见,根据风险和信贷委员会的分析结果、自身的资产规模、客户的风险等级和类型、贷款用途、宏观经济形势、货币政策、货币发行量等决定放贷的金额和利率。
 
       8、信贷风险管控
:相关资料显示,2005年,古巴实施能源革命计划,银行以优惠条件为古巴300万家庭提供信贷用于购买节能家电和其他家用产品,以替换旧的高耗能家电,此类贷款的60%已经偿还,还款率为96%。从上述数据可以看出不良贷款率很低,这意味着资产质量很高,居民还款意识强。我认为这不仅得益于古巴较好的信用文化,也得益于信贷风险管控的良好做法。您能向我们分享一下信贷风险管控的良好做法吗?
:能源革命计划是为了满足经济发展的需求而实施的。古巴人民的信用文化以及企业的信用文化的确在不断加强。至于信贷风险管控方面,银行业监管机构遵循国际标准,制定相关规则和管理办法,限定银行机构可以承担的风险级别。银行机构遵循监管机构的风险限定范围,对客户进行相应的风险分析和风险划分。监管机构采用基于风险的方法制定各种法规和管理办法,这是一种新型的银行监管方式,有利于更大程度的控制风险。此外,所有类型的贷款业务都是基于严格的风险分析而开展的,担保质量也是一项重要考量因素。
 
 

Q&A Session during the meeting with Banco Nacional de Cuba(BNC) and Banco Central de Cuba (BCC)
 

I. Overview of Current Banking System in Cuba
Question: Could you please give us a brief overview of Cuba's current banking system?
Answer: BCC is the central bank of Cuba, which closely monitors monetary and exchange policy of the country. It also supervises all financial institutions and banking institutions all over the country. We also have Banking Supervision Bureau in BCC which rules all the financial activities of all these banking institutions and ensure a healthy operation of financial system in the country.
Our banking financial system in Cuba is a small one. We only have 8 commercial banks, and they are all state banks. We also have
non-banking financial institutions, and representative offices of foreign banks that are located in Cuba.
 
II. Banking System Reform History in Cuba
Question: Could you please introduce what's the relationship between BNC and BCC? In other words, could you please introduce the history of banking system reform in Cuba because as far as I know, BNC once played the role of Cuba's central bank before 1997?
Answer: At present, BNC and BCC are 2 independent institutions. BNC is a commercial bank while BCC is the central bank.
Before 1997, as you mentioned, the functions of the central bank were carried out by BNC. In 1997, due to the change of the economy of Cuba, the creation of investment law and also an intention to private sector, we separate BNC's functions and BCC was built. Then BNC became a commercial bank which only remained the commercial bank's functions. And BCC remained the typical functions of the central bank like other central banks in other countries.
Comments: This is very similar to China's banking system before 1978. Before 1978, China also had only one bank, which is People's Bank of China(PBOC). After reform and opening-up, nowadays we have more than 3000 banking institutions.
 
III Business Development Plan in China
Question: Do you have any plan to set up some branches in China?
Answer: Since 1998, BNC have set its representative office in China. We've been there to support the bilateral trade between China and Cuba as a link. We haven't reached the statutory requirements of setting up branches in China. We have to fulfill a certain amount of representative offices. It's our potential desire and it's something which we think could be very positive. We haven't abandoned the intention to achieve this. China is now the second most important partner in commercial trade with Cuba. And banking relationships are very important to keep the commercial exchange between nations.
 
IV. Banking Institutions' Business Activities in Cuba
Question: Could you please talk about your debts and assets business? How much deposit businesses are from residents and how much loans are granted to residents?
Answer: BCC doesn't receive any deposits from population and has no links with population. We have commercial banks for that.
For example, we have a commercial bank handling specifically the business in agriculture sector with a whole network with many branches all over the country. These banks lend money based on risk analysis in each case and particularly the borrower's credit rating. These banks have some licenses granted by BCC to do this type of activity. There is another bank like Savings banks which develops work mostly with the population. It has a links to people by receiving their deposits from the population and also links to new sector economy (self-employed small business).They lend to them too. There is also a commercial bank dealing with activity of foreign trades. The activities of commercial banks somehow differentiate according to the sectors that they assist and deal with.
 
V. Banking System in Socialist Planned Economy System
Questions: There are several commercial banks in your banking system/socialist economy system. Since there is no concept of commercial banks in traditional socialist economy system, do you consider this as a great change from traditional socialist economy system to a new socialist economy system?
Answer: Ms. Lizi Díaz, Head of Credit Department, BCC: In the case of Cuba, we've maintained a system of socialist economy and planned economy even after 1997 and that is still remained in the legal system of Cuba. State creates banks, enterprises and entities and controls these state resources. In banking case specifically, when banks provide loans to population or entities, they are actually lending state resources. That's one of the reasons why in 1997 BCC is created. One of its main functions is to develop bank supervision and to control the credit limits that each bank or financial institutions has as well as the use and recovery of those credits in a way that all financial institutions and banking institutions are supervised in a planned way. We have a schedule and we control all those operations and ensure all those financial and banking regulations enforced are up to date and follow our laws and standards as well as international standards such as Basel agreement.
Ms. Aleida González, VP of BNC: We don't see any contradiction to the socialist economy system in the current banking system that we have. Actually it responds specifically to the needs of the economy of Cuba which is subject to improvement, following the guidelines that were recently stated by the government in which the banking process doesn't escape from a process of revision and improvement because each of the banks is subject to review. It's very likely we perfect and improve each of the functions of all the banks. That's happening right now starting from BCC. This has taken place not only in the central banks but also in all banks, all the sectors, and all the entities in the country.
Firstly, Cuba banking system exercises all activities following international regulation and standard of banking industry such as Basel agreement. Following those rules, we have very strong activities following all the standards against financial crimes like AML. That's from international point of view.
Secondly, domestically, Cuba followed centralized planned economy. It's one of our first guideline. We have a process of improvement while maintaining the socialist system. We were operating with only 1 or 2 banks until 1997. Banking system couldn't provide diversification of service at that time. We were not so diversified before 1997 but then we started diversifying improvement operations. This gives an example of we are diversifying our activity and new banks development. BCC was created. After that, the population has a demand of putting their deposit in the bank, but BNC has a big burden with the activities with population. Then we create People's Saving Bank. After that we have foreign investment law and the agriculture sector began to develop. That's how we created banks to deal with agriculture activities and some entrepreneur activities in the economy. We have been creating banks and developing the functions of the banks according to the development demand of the economy. To have a diversification of banks has no contradiction with socialist economy system because it's a response to the reality of the development of the country.
 
VI. Banking Institutions' Operation Situation
Question: How about the operation situation of your banking institutions? Do they make money/profits after 1997? Or just break-even or any loss?
Answer: Yes. This is also our main operation objective to recover the credit and make some profits. Our banking policy is based on the guidelines of our economy targeting of developing our socialist economy. In that sense, the credit policy implemented by commercial banks is to function to guarantee monetary resources to finance those productive activities that have strategic interest for the country mainly the production of goods that can give an increase in export level and allow replacement of import. That kind of credit policy has been very well designed because it's based on a strict risk analysis made to different subjects that we borrow the credits. These banks can take account of all the ratios and all the conditions to give them a loan. That's a good measure allowing the reimbursement and recovery of the resources that we granted as a loan or credit. Besides, when banks have strict regulations to restrict the bad loans, they have to make provisions to face those credits. All banks have the corresponding provisions, and consequently those loans are very well controlled for their recovery. However, they also have limits to make loans according to the capital that banks have. They can't lend more than they have.
 
VII. Loan Business
Question 1: Can you make independent decision to lend money to specific companies?
Answer 1: Yes, independent decision. Risk and credit committee make decision on lending.
Question 2: How about interest rate? Do you charge different or same interest rate to different enterprises?
Answer 2: BCC, as any other central bank, has a monetary policy committee where they established the policies and monitor interest rates to implement. One of the main guidelines that BCC establish is to respect the proper relations that they must assist between the active rate and passive rates with establishment the gains limit on which the commercial banks can operate. According to the limits given by the central bank and the risk analysis made by risk and credit committee, commercial banks know how to act independently to decide the interest rate to different clients following the margin limits and guideline. In summary, the commercial banks fix that depending on the analysis made by credit committee and risk committee, the amount of capital that they have, the risk of their clients, the type of clients, the usage of loans, as well as macroeconomics situation, monetary policy and the amount of money in circulation, following the margin limit and guideline of BCC.
 
VIII. Credit Risk Management and Control Practice
Question: Statistics show that since 2005, Cuba implemented “Energy Reform Program” in which Cuba’s banks provide loans to 3 million families on favorable terms to change new electronic appliance to save more electricity. The repayment ratio is very high, which 96%. So the non-performing loan ratio is very low in Cuba which means the assets quality is very high and your population has a strong awareness of paying back loans. I think this proves that the credit culture in Cuba is very good. On the other hand, I think it’s also achieved by your good practice of credit risk management and control. So could you please share your credit risk management and control practice with us?
Answer: This is a very specific program, which is a response to our social economy. It’s true that Cuba population is continuously gaining this credit culture as well as our corporate system.
As for credit risk management and control practice, the bank supervisors issue regulations that impose limits to risk levels that banks can assume according to international standards. From those limit zones we classify clients according to their risks level based on risk. Supervisors also make regulations by risk-based approach which is a new type of bank supervision and an approach of higher control of risk. Now we have new regulations that controlling more the risks of the credit given by each institution. Moreover, all types of credits are based on strict risk analysis and the quality of guarantee offered. 



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